The document said "an attack on German territory, requiring conventional defence of the nation, is unlikely". But, it said, a major security threat to the nation in future could not be ruled out, so civil defence measures were necessary.
Soon, Germans began tweeting ironically under the hashtag "Hamsterkaeufe" (panic-buying).
Interior Minister Thomas de Maiziere told a group of schoolchildren that Germany must be prepared to react if water or food reserves were poisoned, or if oil and gas supplies were interrupted.
The parliamentary head of the left-wing Die Linke party, Dietmar Bartsch, criticised the move, saying "you can completely unsettle people with yet another round of proposals, such as hoarding supplies".
The Greens' deputy parliamentary leader, Konstantin von Notz, said it was sensible to update civil defence advice which had not been touched since 1995.
But he warned against mixing up possible military or terrorist scenarios, saying "I can't see any attack scenario that merits a stockpiling of supplies by the population".
Germany's civil defence: Cold War and now
About 2,000 public bunkers and shelters were built in West Germany, with federal funding (former East Germany had its own communist network of shelters)
There was a wide mix of shelters - eg in garages, schools, private cellars
Special government nuclear bunker was built in Bad Neuenahr-Ahrweiler, 30km (19 miles) from Bonn
Law says Cold War-era shelters must not be converted into new types of building
Germany still has stockpiles of food - eg milk powder and beans - at secret locations, for a national emergency
Inventories are regularly checked and renewed
Emergency offices to issue food and fuel stamps, under national rationing system in a disaster