• All governments lie, but disaster lies in wait for countries whose officials smoke the same hashish they give out.

  • I.F. Stone

zaterdag 21 november 2015

Vluchtelingenstroom 26


De vrees voor Carthago had senaat en volk verenigd, maar nu de laatste rivaal was weggevallen traden de tegengestelde belangen aan de dag. De senatoren namen het niet meer zo nauw met de traditionele mores en hadden vooral oog voor hun eigen politieke en economische gewin. Macht en rijkdom werden de belangrijkste drijfveren. 
Fik Meijer. Bederf van Binnenuit. Gaius Sallustius Crispus.

During the late nineteenth century the British government, under the Liberal party, acted according to the principle of laissez faire. Individuals were solely responsible for their own lives and welfare. The government did not accept responsibility for the poverty and hardship that existed among its citizens. A popular point of view at the time was that poverty was caused by idleness, drunkenness and other such moral weaknesses on the part of the working classes. The poor were seen by the wealthy as an unfortunate but inevitable part of society.
BBC. Liberal government 1906 to 1914.

Inequality isn’t inevitable, it’s engineered. That’s how the 1% have taken over
Unless we wake up to the fact that wild inequality isn’t just an unavoidable byproduct of growth, the gap will keep on widening.


Who will look after the super-rich and think about their needs? It’s not easy for them: the 1% of the world’s population who by next year will own more global wealth than the 99%. Private security costs a fortune, and with the world becoming an increasingly unequal place a certain instability increases…

When we talk of neoliberalism, we are talking about something that has fueled inequality and enabled the 1%. All it means is a stage of capitalism in which the financial markets were deregulated, public services privatised, welfare systems run down, laws to protect working people dismantled, and unions cast as the enemy.

Oxfam can appeal to the vanity of billionaires, but the truth is that’s not enough. The neoliberal project may fail not because of huge protest, but because reduced income means reduced demand. Never mind the angry proletariat, a disappointed middle-class is something all politicians fear. To stem inequality, it is imperative to stop seeing it as inevitable. It’s a choice. A choice very few of us have any say in. The poor are always with us. And now the deserving and undeserving super-rich are too? That’s just the way things are? No. This climate can also change.
Suzanne Moore. Inequality isn’t inevitable, it’s engineered. The Guardian. 19 januari 2015


Democracy has not been doing well… In the United States and Europe, democracies have rushed into foolish wars and stumbled in the face of economic crises — or created those crises. At the time of writing, the North Atlantic democracies are splitting into elite technocrats, who wish they could govern without consulting the masses, and angry populists, who would like to liquidate the technocrats.
Jedediah Purdy. After Nature. A Politics for the Anthropocene. 2015

There is enough to meet everyone’s need, even in a world of 10 billion people. There is not enough to meet everyone’s greed, even in a world of 2 billion people.
George Monbiot. Pregnant Silence. 19 november 2015

Al deze hierboven beschreven factoren zijn onlosmakelijk met elkaar verbonden, en elke geschoolde westerling kan dit weten. Ieder zinnig mens beseft zowel bewust als intuïtief dat het huidige geglobaliseerde neoliberalisme zijn grenzen ruimschoots heeft overschreden. De gecultiveerde hebzucht heeft tot een vernietiging en verwoesting op wereldschaal geleid. Het egoïsme dat schuilgaat achter de leuze 'Geen Jorwert zonder Brussel' is een symptoom van een materialistische cultuur, die bereid is ten koste van elke norm en elke waarde zichzelf te manifesteren. Het voorbeeld bij uitstek is de bestseller-auteur Geert Mak zelf. Onmiddellijk na de aanvallen in Parijs verscheen de bestseller-auteur opnieuw op televisie om zijn licht te laten schijnen over de huidige stand van zaken. Dat wil zeggen: ditmaal  reisde Hilversum helemaal naar het bedevaartsoord Bartlehiem, 160 kilometer ver, de huidige residentie van Mak, nadat, ironisch genoeg, de populistische opiniemaker Jorwert had moeten ontvluchten omdat zijn door Brussel gesubsidieerde buurboer de pastorale rust begon te verstoren. Vanuit zijn kapitale Bartlehiemse boerderij, waar zeker tien Syrische vluchtelingen zouden kunnen onderduiken, wees de grootste nog levende Europeaan dat de hedendaagse en zeker de toekomstige burger alleen door de neoliberale EU kan worden gered, dus dat verzet ertegen zinloos is. Immers, zo had hij eerder benadrukt: 

de EU is een markt van bijna een half miljard mensen met de hoogste gemiddelde levensstandaard ter wereld. Alleen al voor Nederland is de Unie goed voor tweederde van onze totale export, eenvijfde van het nationale product?   

En dus kunnen 'we' de 'deur' naar die 'markt' niet dichtgooien, dat spreekt voor zich, althans in de ogen van de gelovigen, voor wie de 'markt' de doorslaggevende waarheid in hun leven is. Voor een miljonair die onmiddellijk kan uitwijken zodra zijn rust bedreigd wordt, gaat deze materialistische heilsboodschap zeker op, maar dit geldt natuurlijk niet voor miljarden medeburgers die nauwelijks kunnen overleven en buiten de 'markt' vallen. Alleen een gehersenspoelde cynicus als Mak die overal de prijs van weet, maar niets de waarde, durft nu nog de mantra te herhalen dat  '[d]e kracht van onze westerse samenleving onze democratie [is], onze variatie in ideeën, onze tolerantie, onze openheid tegenover andere culturen.' Alleen iemand met een misdadige mentaliteit, zoals Henk Hofland, durft nu nog te stellen dat 'het Westen [vredestichtend]' is. Het Europese establishment heeft eeuwenlang met geweld over de aarde geheerst, alles en iedereen vernietigend dat in de weg stond, terwijl zijn kapitalistische leer alles ontzielde dat voor anderen heilig was. In de negentiende eeuw probeerde de Indiaanse Chief Seattle de blanke barbaar vergeefs te wijzen op het feit dat:

Every part of this soil is sacred in the estimation of my people. Every hillside, every valley, every plain and grove, has been hallowed by some sad or happy event in days long vanished.

Even the rocks, which seem to be dumb and dead as they swelter in the sun along the silent shore, thrill with memories of stirring events connected with the lives of my people. And the very dust upon which you now stand responds more lovingly to their footsteps than to yours, because it is rich with the blood of our ancestors and our bare feet are conscious of the sympathetic touch…

And when the last red man shall have perished, and the memory of my tribe shall have become a myth among the white men, these shores will swarm with the invisible dead of my tribe.

And when your children’s children think themselves alone in the field, the store, the shop, upon the highway, or in the silence of the pathless woods, they will not be alone.

In all the earth there is no place dedicated to solitude. At night, when the streets of your cities and villages are silent, and you think them deserted, they will throng  with the returning hosts that once filled them and still love this beautiful land. The white man will never be alone.

Let him be just and deal kindly with my people. For the dead are not powerless.

Dead, did I say? There is no death. Only a change of worlds.

Wat een profetisch inzicht; wij zijn inderdaad niet alleen, wij worden omringd door de herinneringen aan wat eens was en dat door ons egoïsme verwoest is. De waarheid heeft ons ingehaald, en met lege handen zien we toe hoe een stuurloze werkelijkheid ons naar de afgrond voert, terwijl 'onze' dwazen maar blijven door kakelen, en elkaar tot het einde toe blijven napraten, louter en alleen om de verpletterende stilte en leegte te verbreken. En dit alles tot uiteindelijk ook onze ziel het lichaam verlaat, en de atomen waaruit we bestaan zich zullen herschikken en als voedsel dienen voor de natuur. Hoe schraal en infantiel tekent Mak's 'vaderlijke God,' die 'milde man, die mensen doorziet in hun zwakheid,' af tegen het metafysische wereldbeeld van Chief Seattle, waarin 

[e]ven the rocks, which seem to be dumb and dead as they swelter in the sun along the silent shore, thrill with memories of stirring events connected with the lives of my people. 

Hoe vaak Geert Mak ook zal verhuizen, altijd zal zijn rust verstoord worden door het oprukkende 'Jorwert' dat niet langer meer 'zonder Brussel' kan bestaan, omdat de ideologie van de 'markt' onverzadigbaar is, en telkens nieuwe offers eist, net als de God van de Azteken onophoudelijk bloedoffers vergde. De mensheid heeft vier aardes nodig om iedereen op aarde evenveel te geven als een doorsnee westerling vandaag de dag bezit. Desondanks blijft Mak zijn ontzielde materialisme verkopen als verlossing voor de mensheid. In zijn nu al volstrekt gedateerde bestseller In Europa (2004) laat hij de voormalige marxist en huidige SP-multimiljonair Derk Sauer kritiekloos aan het woord over de zegeningen van het marktdenken in Rusland. Over diens Russische versie van het glossy tijdschrift Cosmopolitan laat hij anonieme bronnen beweren dat 'De mensen enorme behoefte [hebben] aan nieuwe symbolen en iconen, aan nieuwe omgangsvormen,' terwijl een ander verkondigt dat 'Cosmopolitan een compleet andere levensstijl [toont], met moderne en open verhoudingen tussen mannen en vrouwen, chefs en ondergeschikten.' Weer een ander is van oordeel dat 

Cosmopolitan de Russinnen nieuwe rolmodellen [toont]: ongebonden vrouwen, goed opgeleid, werken, in staat om de genoegens van de postmoderne samenleving ten volle uit te buiten. Het zijn de overwinnaars van de mannen,

aldus de holle propaganda van Mak en zijn geloofsgenoten. Op zijn beurt verkondigt Sauer zelf:

Een tijdschrift is hét middel om een lifestyle uit te drukken. In de sovjettijd werd iedereen geacht gelijk te zijn. Dit blad leerde de mensen om hun individualiteit weer uit te dragen. Het was hun gids voor het nieuwe leven.

Holle reclameteksten uit de mond van een voormalige marxist-leninist, die nu de SP steunt. In een virtuele werkelijkheid is niets meer ondenkbaar, er is geen waarheid meer, alles kan, dat wil zeggen: alles dat het neoliberale geloof dicteert, de rest is taboe en wordt dan ook gemarginaliseerd. Sauer en Mak laten weten dat de Russische Cosmopolitan een, ik citeer, 'eclatant succes' is, aangezien de 'oplage' nu (2004) 'rond de driehonderdvijftigduizend [schommelt],' met als gevolg dat 'Sauer alweer op nieuwe bladconcepten [zint].' De lezer van In Europa ontkomt niet aan de indruk dat het allemaal de goede kant opgaat, terwijl in werkelijkheid in dezelfde tijd de 'so-called reform economic policies have left some 70 percent of Russians living near the poverty line — many embittered, deprived of life savings, welfare subsidies, health care, and job security,' zoals de Amerikaanse Rusland-expert, professor Stephen F. Cohen' in zijn boek Failed Crusade. America and the Tragedy of Post-Communist Russia (2001) schreef. Sauer vertelt Mak dat hij 

Vorige zomer meemaakte dat de roebel onderuitging en dat alle banken sloten. Iedereen raakte zijn spaargeld kwijt, mensen die jarenlang gedroomd hadden van een datsja of een buitenlandse vakantie, alles weg, nooit meer terug. Stel je voor dat je in Nederland opeens je geld niet meer van de bank zou kunnen halen, en dat je het ook nooit meer zou terugzien. Er zou een totale pleuris uitbreken. Hier, op dit kantoor, had iedereen natuurlijk ook grote problemen, maar toch bleven de meesten zeldzaam laconiek. Ik verwachtte zenuwinstortingen, maar nee hoor. Russen hebben, na alle ellende, een opvallen talent om tegenslagen te accepteren en eroverheen te stappen.

In plaats van dat de journalist Mak deze observatie oppikte en het in een context probeerde te zetten, nam hij Sauer's woorden voor kennisgeving aan, en was de enige conclusie die hij eraan wist te verbinden dat de Russische samenleving corrupt is, in tegenstelling natuurlijk tot Nederland, waar kennelijk de misdadige praktijken van de bankiers 'een totale pleuris' zouden hebben veroorzaakt. We moeten er evenwel van uitgaan dat zowel Mak als Sauer weinig tot niets van de realiteit begrijpen, want vier jaar na het verschijnen van In Europa hielden de westerse staten de banksters met vele honderden miljarden aan belastinggeld overeind, zodat zij hun bonussen nog verder konden opschroeven, en de bevolking in de 'vrije wereld' dit lijdzaam accepteerde. Toch blijven Sauer's opmerkingen interessant, want dat in Rusland de 'totale pleuris' geenszins uitbrak, heeft als reden het feit dat er sprake is van een continuïteit in de Russische geschiedenis, namelijk de

diepe, rechtgelovige grondtrek van de Russische ziel: bevrijding uit de wereld, die in de loze ligt, ascese, bereidheid tot het offer en tot het aanvaarden van ondraaglijk leed… De Russen zoeken in hun scheppingsdrang naar een volmaakt leven en niet enkel naar volmaakte producten, 

zoals de grote Russische filosoof Nikolai Berdjajew schreef, een continuïteit waar ook talloze andere denkers op wezen. Ik voeg hieraan toe dat de opvallende stoïcijnse gelatenheid tevens demonstreert dat de neoliberale doctrine en haar hysterie, zodra zij faalt, in Rusland niet is geïnternaliseerd, hetgeen voor een onafhankelijke waarnemer veelbetekenend zou moeten zijn. Maar niet voor Mak en de andere westerse opiniërende ideologen die in de journalistiek verzeild mijn geraakt. Voor hen geldt slechts het geloof in de 'hoop' die het materialistische Vooruitgangsgeloof zijn vleugels geeft. De historisch ontstane verschillen tussen uiteenlopende culturen en maatschappelijke systemen zijn voor de Vooruitgangsprofeten dan ook volstrekt onbespreekbaar. De toekomst is voor hen de alles verslindende 'markt,' en de 'deur' ernaar moeten 'we' koste wat kost niet 'dichtgooien.' De vooruitgang, met als kern het winstprincipe en het individualisme, moet centraal blijven staan. Hoe dit fundamentalisme te rijmen is met de realiteit is één van de grootste paradoxen. Ik bedoel, hoe autistisch moet een mens zijn om rotsvast te kunnen geloven dat een systeem, waarin slechts 85 individuen even rijk zijn als de helft van de hele mensheid tezamen, werkelijk 'vredestichtend' is, en dat de praktijk van alledag daadwerkelijk getuigt van 'onze variatie in ideeën, onze tolerantie, onze openheid tegenover andere culturen.' Zou er ook maar één lezer zijn die mij dit geloofwaardig kan maken? Een ander punt is: waarom zouden de Russen het Amerikaans individualisme klakkeloos moeten imiteren? Ik stel deze vraag omdat de Franse denker Alexis de Tocqueville  in zijn nog steeds actuele studie Democracy in America (1835) op het volgende wees:

Individualism is a reflective and peaceful sentiment that disposes each citizen to isolate himself from the mass of his fellow men and to draw himself from the mass of his fellow men and to draw himself off to the side with his family and his friends in such a way that, after having thus created for himself   a small society of his own, he willingly abandons the larger society to itself. 


Terecht refereert de aristocraat Tocqueville in zijn scherpzinnige analyse van de Amerikaanse cultuur  aan het volgende:

Egoism dries up the germ of all the social virtues; individualism ar first only dries up the source of the public virtues, but over the long term it attacks and destroys all others and eventually becomes absorbed in egoism.

Het voert Tocqueville naar een ander aspect van onze individualistische cultuur:

In this way, democracy not only makes each man forget his forefathers, but it conceals his descendants from him and separates him from his contemporaries; it leads him back constantly towards himself alone and threatens finally to confine him entirely within the solitude of his own heart.

Mijn 'jaren-zestig' generatie is daarvan het meest kenmerkende voorbeeld dat ik ken. Zij lijdt aan een  spijkerhard egoïsme dat in het ver doorgevoerde individualisme is geworteld. Het interesseert de a-sociale Geert Mak, die geen kinderen van zichzelf heeft, geen jota dat onze nakomelingen de rekening zullen moeten betalen voor zijn onverzadigbaar marktdenken, voor zijn voortdurende propaganda ten gunste van het anonieme bureaucratie met haar hoofdkwartier in Brussel, en voor zijn oproep om nog meer belastinggeld te besteden aan bewapening, terwijl de NAVO al ruim zestien keer meer aan het militair-industrieel complex uitgeeft dan Rusland. Zolang hij maar in het middelpunt van de belangstelling kan blijven staan, en zijn boeken maar worden verkocht, vindt hij het, als miljonair met een eigen marktkraam, allemaal best, en blijft hij zijn oppervlakkige en vaak op niets gestoelde meningen spuien. Tocqueville wees al meer dan anderhalve eeuw geleden op het grote gevaar van opiniemakers in de massamedia, toen hij na zijn reizen in de VS vaststelde dat:

[i]n the United States, the majority takes care of supplying individuals with a host of ready-made opinions and thus relieves them of the obligation of forming their own.
There are a great number of theories of philosophy, morality, or politics which everyone there adopts in this way without examination, on the word of the public, and if one looks closely, one will see that religion itself prevails there much less as revealed doctrine than as common opinion.
Tocqueville warned that modern democracy may be adept at inventing new forms of tyranny, because radical equality could lead to the materialism of an expanding bourgeoisie and to the selfishness of individualism. In such conditions we lose interest in the future of our descendants… and meekly allow ourselves to be led in ignorance by a despotic force all the more powerful because it does not resemble one. Tocqueville worried that if despotism were to take root in a modern democracy, it would be a much more dangerous version than the oppression under the Roman emperors or tyrants of the past who could only exert a pernicious influence on a small group of people at a time.

In contrast, a despotism under a democracy could see 'a multitude of men,' uniformly alike, equal, 'constantly circling for petty pleasures,' unaware of fellow citizens, and subject to the will of a powerful state which exerted an 'immense protective power.' Tocqueville compared a potentially despotic democratic government to a protective parent who wants to keep its citizens (children) as 'perpetual children,' and which doesn't break men's wills but rather guides it, and presides over people in the same way as a shepherd looking after a 'flock of timid animals.' 

En wie anders dan de commerciële massamedia, in bezit van de plutocratie, kunnen met zachte hand de 'kudde van timide beesten' de juiste richting op voeren? Hier komt nog een element bij. In de jaren twintig van de vorige eeuw adviseerde de invloedrijkste Amerikaanse media-ideoloog en adviseur van Amerikaanse presidenten, Walter Lippmann:

public opinions must be organized for the press if they are to be sound, not by the press... Without some form of censorship, propaganda in the strict sense of the word is impossible. In order to conduct propaganda there must be some barrier between the public and the event. Access to the real environment must be limited, before anyone can create a pseudo-environment that he thinks is wise or desirable.

Immers,

How small our proportion of direct observations is when compared to those observation that are conveyed to us through the media.

Om nu te voorkomen dat de massa, in de woorden van Lippmann, 'a bewildered herd,' op hol slaat, moeten de beelden die de massa krijgt toegediend streng geselecteerd worden, zodat de juiste opvattingen ontstaan 'for the real environment is altogether too big, too complex, and too fleeting for direct acquaintance.' De massamens is namelijk

not equipped to deal with so much subtlety, so much variety, so many permutations and combinations. And although we have to act in that environment, we have to reconstruct it on a simpler model before we can manage with it.

Voor de lezers die hem niet kennen, even wat achtergrondinformatie. Lippmann's standaardwerk heet Public Opinion (1922) en is'An Important Work on The Theory of Public Opinion in Relation to Traditional Democratic Theory.'

Walter Lippmann (23 September 1889 – 14 December 1974) was an American intellectualwriterreporter, and political commentator who gained notoriety for the introduction of the concept of Cold War for the first time in the world. Lippmann was twice awarded (1958 and 1962) a Pulitzer Prize for his syndicated newspaper column, 'Today and Tomorrow.'

De door het establishment zo gerespecteerde Lippmann, was, hoewel zelf een journalist, geenszins van oordeel dat nieuws en waarheid synoniem waren. Integendeel zelfs,

For him the 'function of news is to signalize an event, the function of truth is to bring to light the hidden facts, to set them in relation with each other, and make a picture of reality on which men can act.' A journalist’s version of the truth is subjective and limited to how he constructs his reality. The news, therefore, is 'imperfectly recorded' and too fragile to bear the charge as 'an organ of direct democracy.'

To his mind, democratic ideals had deteriorated, voters were largely ignorant about issues and policies, they lacked the competence to participate in public life and cared little for participating in the political process. In Public Opinion(1922), Lippmann noted that the stability the government achieved during the patronage era of the 1800s was threatened by modern realities. He wrote that a 'governing class' must rise to face the new challenges. He saw the public as Plato did, a great beast or a bewildered herd –- floundering in the 'chaos of local opinions.'

The basic problem of democracy, he wrote, was the accuracy of news and protection of sources. He argued that distorted information was inherent in the human mind. People make up their minds before they define the facts, while the ideal would be to gather and analyze the facts before reaching conclusions. By seeing first, he argued, it is possible to sanitize polluted information. Lippmann argued that seeing through stereotypes (which he coined in this specific meaning) subjected us to partial truths. Lippmann called the notion of a public competent to direct public affairs a 'false ideal.' He compared the political savvy (benul. svh) of an average man to a theater-goer walking into a play in the middle of the third act and leaving before the last curtain.

Early on Lippmann said the herd of citizens must be governed by 'a specialized class whose interests reach beyond the locality.' This class is composed of experts, specialists and bureaucrats. The experts, who often are referred to as 'elites,' were to be a machinery of knowledge that circumvents the primary defect of democracy, the impossible ideal of the 'omnicompetent citizen.' (alom-deskundige burger. svh) Later, in The Phantom Public(1925), he recognized that the class of experts were also, in most respects, outsiders to any particular problem, and hence, not capable of effective action.

Om het belang aan te geven van Lippmann's baanbrekende boek Public Opinion dient de lezer te weten dat het door de elites nog steeds gezien wordt als een 'brilliant study,' die 'indispensable [is] to any serious student of politics and of great value to the citizen without special interest in scholarship,' aldus wijlen Charles E. Merrian, 

professor of political science at the University of Chicago, founder of the behavioralistic approach to political science, a prominent intellectual in the Progressive Movement, and an advisor to several U.S. Presidents. Upon his death, The New York Times called him 'one of the outstanding political scientists in the country.'

Bijna een eeuw nadat Walter Lippmann zijn boek schreef, zal alleen nog een gehersenspoelde van mening kunnen zijn dat diens beschrijving nonsens is. Welnu, met Lippmann's inzicht als uitgangspunt wordt duidelijk hoe propagandistisch Mak's beschrijving van Rusland is, wanneer hij de lezers van zijn vuistdikke In Europa vertelt dat 'het glimmende damesblad Cosmopolitan,'met een oplage van slechts 300.000 exemplaren in een land van ruim 146 miljoen inwoners, een 'eclatant succes' is, en 'een fenomeen op zich. Wie ik er ook over spreek, iedereen heeft er een mening over.' Het enige dat hieruit blijkt is hoe weinig gevarieerd het publiek is dat hij gesproken heeft. En wanneer hij het kleine kringetje, waarin hij zich bewogen heeft, onweersproken laat zeggen dat Cosmopolitan de 'moderne en open verhoudingen [toont] tussen mannen en vrouwen, chefs en ondergeschikten,' dan demonstreert hij slechts hoe absurd zijn mens- en wereldbeeld is. Ook Derk Sauer's opmerking dat zijn blad en ongetwijfeld ook zijn Russische Playboy 'de mensen [leerde] om hun individualiteit weer uit te dragen,' getuigt van waanzin. Waar het werkelijk om gaat werd zo helder beschreven door de Moscow News, destijds in handen van de naderhand veroordeelde oligarch Mikhail Khodorkovsky. Toen de armoede in Rusland een absoluut hoogtepunt c.q. dieptepunt had bereikt, meldde  Khodorkovsky's Engelstalige krant verheugd:

The Yuppies Are Coming! This group of hipsters are among a chosen few who are defying Moscow's stacked-up odds: shortages, downward mobility and a nihilistic outlook. A new breed of Moscow youth like money, want a better life for themselves and are fending off the system which chokes so much of their city... 'I like to make money,' said 25-year-old Sterligov, founder of the Russian Millionaire's Club, who also earns hard currency. And money makes money.'

Degene die zich onder het Jeltsin-regime verzetten tegen het plunderen van Rusland ten koste van de grote meerderheid van berooide Russen, werd een 'nihilistic outlook' verweten door de krant van de 'robber baron' Khodorkovsky, de man die, na door  president Poetin vervroegd te zijn vrijgelaten, nu door Mak's vriend Hubert Smeets naar voren geschoven wordt als een democratisch alternatief voor 'Poetin.' En zo is de propagandacirkel weer rond. Tocqueville had gelijk:

Individualism is a reflective and peaceful sentiment that disposes each citizen to isolate himself from the mass of his fellow men and to draw himself from the mass of his fellow men and to draw himself off to the side with his family and his friends in such a way that, after having thus created for himself   a small society of his own, he willingly abandons the larger society to itself. 

Meer over mijn gecorrumpeerde collega's de volgende keer. 


De cover van de Russische Playboy en de Russische Cosmopolitan. Derk Sauer's bijdrage aan 'moderne en open verhoudingen' waardoor de Russen 'de genoegens van de postmoderne samenleving ten volle' weten 'uit te buiten,' waarbij, let op, de Russische vrouwen 'de overwinnaars van de mannen' zijn. 


Hierboven: Kim Kardashian, die 'de mensen' in Rusland leert 'om hun individualiteit weer uit te dragen.' Hieronder de ongefotoshopte Geert en Mietsie Mak, het 'nieuwe rolmodel' voor de Russinnen, als ik het allemaal goed begrepen heb. De virtuele wereld van de schijn versus de harde werkelijkheid van alledag. Daarentegen ben ik veel minder 'vrolijk, geestdriftig en optimistisch' als Derk Sauer, volgens Geert Mak, is.




NATO-Member Turkey Supports Terrorism

Research Paper: ISIS-Turkey List

Posted: Updated: 
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COLUMBIA UNIVERSITY
IN THE CITY OF NEW YORK
INSTITUTE FOR THE STUDY OF HUMAN RIGHTS
Research Paper: ISIS-Turkey Links
By David L. Phillips
Introduction
Is Turkey collaborating with the Islamic State (ISIS)? Allegations range from military cooperation and weapons transfers to logistical support, financial assistance, and the provision of medical services. It is also alleged that Turkey turned a blind eye to ISIS attacks against Kobani. 
President Recep Tayyip Erdogan and Prime Minister Ahmet Davutoglu strongly deny complicity with ISIS. Erdogan visited the Council on Foreign Relations on September 22, 2014. He criticized "smear campaigns [and] attempts to distort perception about us." Erdogan decried, "A systematic attack on Turkey's international reputation, "complaining that "Turkey has been subject to very unjust and ill-intentioned news items from media organizations." Erdogan posited: "My request from our friends in the United States is to make your assessment about Turkey by basing your information on objective sources." 
Columbia University's Program on Peace-building and Rights assigned a team of researchers in the United States, Europe, and Turkey to examine Turkish and international media, assessing the credibility of allegations. This report draws on a variety of international sources -- The New York Times, The Washington Post, The Guardian, The Daily Mail, BBC, Sky News, as well as Turkish sources, CNN Turk, Hurriyet Daily News, Taraf, Cumhuriyet, and Radikal among others. 
Allegations
Turkey Provides Military Equipment to ISIS
• An ISIS commander told The Washington Post on August 12, 2014: "Most of the fighters who joined us in the beginning of the war came via Turkey, and so did our equipment and supplies." 
• Kemal Kiliçdaroglu, head of the Republican People's Party (CHP), produced a statement from the Adana Office of the Prosecutor on October 14, 2014 maintaining that Turkey supplied weapons to terror groups. He also produced interview transcripts from truck drivers who delivered weapons to the groups. According to Kiliçdaroglu, the Turkish government claims the trucks were for humanitarian aid to the Turkmen, but the Turkmen said no humanitarian aid was delivered. 
• According to CHP Vice President Bulent Tezcan, three trucks were stopped in Adana for inspection on January 19, 2014. The trucks were loaded with weapons in Esenboga Airport in Ankara. The drivers drove the trucks to the border, where a MIT agent was supposed to take over and drive the trucks to Syria to deliver materials to ISIS and groups in Syria. This happened many times. When the trucks were stopped, MIT agents tried to keep the inspectors from looking inside the crates. The inspectors found rockets, arms, and ammunitions. 
• Cumhuriyet reports that Fuat Avni, a preeminent Twitter user who reported on the December 17th corruption probe, that audio tapes confirm that Turkey provided financial and military aid to terrorist groups associated with Al Qaeda on October 12, 2014. On the tapes, Erdogan pressured the Turkish Armed Forces to go to war with Syria. Erdogan demanded that Hakan Fidan, the head of Turkey's National Intelligence Agency (MIT), come up with a justification for attacking Syria.
• Hakan Fidan told Prime Minister Ahmet Davutoglu, Yasar Guler, a senior defense official, and Feridun Sinirlioglu, a senior foreign affairs official: "If need be, I'll send 4 men into Syria. I'll formulate a reason to go to war by shooting 8 rockets into Turkey; I'll have them attack the Tomb of Suleiman Shah." 
• Documents surfaced on September 19th, 2014 showing that the Saudi Emir Bender Bin Sultan financed the transportation of arms to ISIS through Turkey. A flight leaving Germany dropped off arms in the Etimesgut airport in Turkey, which was then split into three containers, two of which were given to ISIS and one to Gaza. 
Turkey Provided Transport and Logistical Assistance to ISIS Fighters
• According to Radikal on June 13, 2014, Interior Minister Muammar Guler signed a directive: "According to our regional gains, we will help al-Nusra militants against the branch of PKK terrorist organization, the PYD, within our borders...Hatay is a strategic location for the mujahideen crossing from within our borders to Syria. Logistical support for Islamist groups will be increased, and their training, hospital care, and safe passage will mostly take place in Hatay...MIT and the Religious Affairs Directorate will coordinate the placement of fighters in public accommodations." 
• The Daily Mail reported on August 25, 2014 that many foreign militants joined ISIS in Syria and Iraq after traveling through Turkey, but Turkey did not try to stop them. This article describes how foreign militants, especially from the UK, go to Syria and Iraq through the Turkish border. They call the border the "Gateway to Jihad." Turkish army soldiers either turn a blind eye and let them pass, or the jihadists pay the border guards as little as $10 to facilitate their crossing. 
• Britain's Sky News obtained documents showing that the Turkish government has stamped passports of foreign militants seeking to cross the Turkey border into Syria to join ISIS.
• The BBC interviewed villagers, who claim that buses travel at night, carrying jihadists to fight Kurdish forces in Syria and Iraq, not the Syrian Armed Forces.
• A senior Egyptian official indicated on October 9, 2014 that Turkish intelligence is passing satellite imagery and other data to ISIS. 
Turkey Provided Training to ISIS Fighters
• CNN Turk reported on July 29, 2014 that in the heart of Istanbul, places like Duzce and Adapazari, have become gathering spots for terrorists. There are religious orders where ISIS militants are trained. Some of these training videos are posted on the Turkish ISIS propaganda website takvahaber.net. According to CNN Turk, Turkish security forces could have stopped these developments if they had wanted to.
• Turks who joined an affiliate of ISIS were recorded at a public gathering in Istanbul, which took place on July 28, 2014. 
• A video shows an ISIS affiliate holding a prayer/gathering in Omerli, a district of Istanbul. In response to the video, CHP Vice President, MP Tanrikulu submitted parliamentary questions to the Minister of the Interior, Efkan Ala, asking questionssuch as, "Is it true that a camp or camps have been allocated to an affiliate of ISIS in Istanbul? What is this affiliate? Who is it made up of? Is the rumor true that the same area allocated for the camp is also used for military exercises?" 
• Kemal Kiliçdaroglu warned the AKP government not to provide money and training to terror groups on October 14, 2014. He said, "It isn't right for armed groups to be trained on Turkish soil. You bring foreign fighters to Turkey, put money in their pockets, guns in their hands, and you ask them to kill Muslims in Syria. We told them to stop helping ISIS. Ahmet Davutoglu asked us to show proof. Everyone knows that they're helping ISIS." (See HERE and HERE.)
• According to Jordanian intelligence, Turkey trained ISIS militants for special operations. 
Turkey Offers Medical Care to ISIS Fighters
• An ISIS commander told the Washington Post on August 12, 2014, "We used to have some fighters -- even high-level members of the Islamic State -- getting treated in Turkish hospitals." 
• Taraf reported on October 12, 2014 that Dengir Mir Mehmet Fırat, a founder of the AKP, said that Turkey supported terrorist groups and still supports them and treats them in hospitals. "In order to weaken the developments in Rojova (Syrian Kurdistan), the government gave concessions and arms to extreme religious groups...the government was helping the wounded. The Minister of Health said something such as, it's a human obligation to care for the ISIS wounded."
• According to Taraf, Ahmet El H, one of the top commanders at ISIS and Al Baghdadi's right hand man, was treated at a hospital in Sanliurfa, Turkey, along with other ISIS militants. The Turkish state paid for their treatment. According to Taraf's sources, ISIS militants are being treated in hospitals all across southeastern Turkey. More and more militants have been coming in to be treated since the start of airstrikes in August. To be more specific, eight ISIS militants were transported through the Sanliurfa border crossing; these are their names: "Mustafa A., Yusuf El R., Mustafa H., Halil El M., Muhammet El H., Ahmet El S., Hasan H., [and] Salim El D."
Turkey Supports ISIS Financially Through Purchase of Oil
• On September 13, 2014, The New York Times reported on the Obama administration's efforts to pressure Turkey to crack down on ISIS extensive sales network for oil. James Phillips, a senior fellow at the Heritage Foundation, argues that Turkey has not fully cracked down on ISIS's sales network because it benefits from a lower price for oil, and that there might even be Turks and government officials who benefit from the trade.
• Fehim Taştekin wrote in Radikal on September 13, 2014 about illegal pipelines transporting oil from Syria to nearby border towns in Turkey. The oil is sold for as little as 1.25 liras per liter. Taştekin indicated that many of these illegal pipelines were dismantled after operating for 3 years, once his article was published. 
• According to Diken and OdaTV, David Cohen, a Justice Department official, saysthat there are Turkish individuals acting as middlemen to help sell ISIS's oil through Turkey.
• On October 14, 2014, a German Parliamentarian from the Green Party accusedTurkey of allowing the transportation of arms to ISIS over its territory, as well as the sale of oil.
Turkey Assists ISIS Recruitment
• Kerim Kiliçdaroğlu claimed on October 14, 2014 that ISIS offices in Istanbul and Gaziantep are used to recruit fighters. On October 10, 2014, the mufti of Konya said that 100 people from Konya joined ISIS 4 days ago. (See HERE and HERE.)
• OdaTV reports that Takva Haber serves as a propaganda outlet for ISIS to recruit Turkish-speaking individuals in Turkey and Germany. The address where this propaganda website is registered corresponds to the address of a school called Irfan Koleji, which was established by Ilim Yayma Vakfi, a foundation that was created by Erdogan and Davutoglu, among others. It is thus claimed that the propaganda site is operated from the school of the foundation started by AKP members. 
• Minister of Sports, Suat Kilic, an AKP member, visited Salafi jihadists who are ISIS supporters in Germany. The group is known for reaching out to supporters via free Quran distributions and raising funds to sponsor suicide attacks in Syria and Iraq by raising money.
• OdaTV released a video allegedly showing ISIS militants riding a bus in Istanbul.
Turkish Forces Are Fighting Alongside ISIS
• On October 7, 2014, IBDA-C, a militant Islamic organization in Turkey, pledged support to ISIS. A Turkish friend who is a commander in ISIS suggests that Turkey is "involved in all of this" and that "10,000 ISIS members will come to Turkey." A Huda-Par member at the meeting claims that officials criticize ISIS but in fact sympathize with the group (Huda-Par, the "Free Cause Party", is a Kurdish Sunni fundamentalist political party). BBP member claims that National Action Party (MHP) officials are close to embracing ISIS. In the meeting, it is asserted that ISIS militants come to Turkey frequently to rest, as though they are taking a break from military service. They claim that Turkey will experience an Islamic revolution, and Turks should be ready for jihad. (See HERE and HERE.)
• Seymour Hersh maintains in the London Review of Books that ISIS conducted sarin attacks in Syria, and that Turkey was informed. "For months there had been acute concern among senior military leaders and the intelligence community about the role in the war of Syria's neighbors, especially Turkey. Prime Minister Recep Erdogan was known to be supporting the al-Nusra Front, a jihadist faction among the rebel opposition, as well as other Islamist rebel groups. 'We knew there were some in the Turkish government,' a former senior US intelligence official, who has access to current intelligence, told me, 'who believed they could get Assad's nuts in a vice by dabbling with a sarin attack inside Syria - and forcing Obama to make good on his red line threat." 
• On September 20, 2014, Demir Celik, a Member of Parliament with the people's democratic party (HDP) claimed that Turkish Special Forces fight with ISIS. 
Turkey Helped ISIS in Battle for Kobani
• Anwar Moslem, Mayor of Kobani, said on September 19, 2014: "Based on the intelligence we got two days before the breakout of the current war, trains full of forces and ammunition, which were passing by north of Kobane, had an-hour-and-ten-to-twenty-minute-long stops in these villages: Salib Qaran, Gire Sor, Moshrefat Ezzo. There are evidences, witnesses, and videos about this. Why is ISIS strong only in Kobane's east? Why is it not strong either in its south or west? Since these trains stopped in villages located in the east of Kobane, we guess they had brought ammunition and additional force for the ISIS." In the second article on September 30, 2014, a CHP delegation visited Kobani, where locals claimed that everything from the clothes ISIS militants wear to their guns comes from Turkey. (See HERE and HERE.)
• Released by Nuhaber, a video shows Turkish military convoys carrying tanks and ammunition moving freely under ISIS flags in the Cerablus region and Karkamis border crossing (September 25, 2014). There are writings in Turkish on the trucks. 
• Salih Muslim, PYD head, claims that 120 militants crossed into Syria from Turkey between October 20th and 24th, 2014.
• According to an op-ed written by a YPG commander in The New York Times on October 29, 2014, Turkey allows ISIS militants and their equipment to pass freely over the border. 
• Diken reported, "ISIS fighters crossed the border from Turkey into Syria, over the Turkish train tracks that delineate the border, in full view of Turkish soldiers. They were met there by PYD fighters and stopped." 
• A Kurdish commander in Kobani claims that ISIS militants have Turkish entry stamps on their passports.
• Kurds trying to join the battle in Kobani are turned away by Turkish police at the Turkey-Syrian border. 
• OdaTV released a photograph of a Turkish soldier befriending ISIS militants. 
Turkey and ISIS Share a Worldview
• RT reports on Vice President Joe Biden's remarks detailing Turkish support to ISIS. 
According to the Hurriyet Daily News on September 26, 2014, "The feelings of the AKP's heavyweights are not limited to Ankara. I was shocked to hear words of admiration for ISIL from some high-level civil servants even in Şanliurfa. 'They are like us, fighting against seven great powers in the War of Independence,' one said." "Rather than the [Kurdistan Workers' Party] PKK on the other side, I would rather have ISIL as a neighbor," said another."
• Cengiz Candar, a well-respected Turkish journalist, maintained that MIT helped "midwife" the Islamic state in Iraq and Syria, as well as other Jihadi groups. 
• An AKP council member posted on his Facebook page: "Thankfully ISIS exists... May you never run out of ammunition..." 
• A Turkish Social Security Institution supervisor uses the ISIS logo in internal correspondences.
• Bilal Erdogan and Turkish officials meet alleged ISIS fighters.
Mr. Phillips is Director of the Program on Peace-building and Rights at Columbia University's Institute for the Study of Human Rights. He served as a Senior Adviser and Foreign Affairs Expert for the U.S. Department of State.